Guidance on orchard management in spring

2022-05-18 0 By

In recent years, the average temperature in the middle and late March and April of most fruit producing areas in our province is higher than usual, which leads to the early germination and flowering of fruit trees. The late frost before and after flowering will cause different degrees of freezing damage to fruit tree production every year.Local governments should attach great importance to the prevention of late frost damage this year.One is combined with the forecast of local meteorological departments, accurate analysis of the impact of weather changes on fruit tree germination, flowering and young fruit growth, actively respond to strong cooling, rain and snow, late frost, strong wind, sand and dust and other disasters caused by the harm to fruit trees.The second is to take the prevention and control of fruit trees before and after flowering as an important work of orchard spring management and disaster prevention and mitigation, start work as early as possible, formulate emergency plans, do a good job of material reserve for prevention of freezing injury, and timely convey the forecast information of freezing injury to fruit cooperatives (enterprises) and farmers.Organize technical personnel to enter the village and park in time before frost, give scientific guidance to prevent frost injury and reduce disaster loss as much as possible.Three is to take orchard irrigation delay germination, frost to the temporary smoke, tree body spray or spray antifreeze, orchard frame frost machine, install heating furnace or cover frost film and other measures to prevent or alleviate late frost damage.In central and western regions, according to the weather forecast, the grapes buried in the soil should be excavated, and the excavated grapes should be protected in advance according to the weather changes.We should pay close attention to the temperature change in greenhouse for fruit trees cultivated in facilities, and take measures to increase temperature and supplement light to prevent production reduction.Fourth, after the occurrence of freezing injury, we should carry out post-disaster investigation in time, guide the spraying of nutrient solution or repair agents, suspend the thinning of flowers and fruits, arrange and trim the frozen branches, strengthen water and fertilizer management, do a good job in disease prevention, and recover and strengthen tree strength as soon as possible.At the same time, measures such as bee release and artificial pollination should be adopted to improve fruit setting rate, prevent production and reduce loss as much as possible.Strengthen the management of newly built orchards and the renovation and renewal of old orchards. First, strictly implement the policy of newly developed orchards not occupying basic farmland, not competing for land with grain, and encouraging the use of “four wastelands” resources to build gardens.Choose in the middle and late April planting garden, planting after timely dry, trunk set special film tube, tree plate (or tree line) covered with film to preserve moisture and watering, prevent pumping, improve the survival rate.After planting dwarfing stock seedlings, stick bamboo poles next to them and bind them in time.When young orchards need intercropping, enough nutrient belts must be set aside along the tree line to promote interplanting of green manure, dwarf legume crops, Chinese medicinal materials, melons and vegetables, etc. Interplanting of tall stalks and crops with the same pathogen as fruit trees is strictly prohibited.Two is to two, three years of young trees to determine the tree shape as early as possible, apple main push high spindle, free spindle and other tree shape, do a good job of bud carving, pull branches and plastic pruning management, keep the tree potential robust, for the formation of the tree body skeleton and the future stable yield lay the foundation.The initial fruit tree should not be overloaded, pay attention to fertilizer and water input, mainly cultivate tree shape, and leave fruit reasonably.For trees in full fruiting period, pruning and re-pruning before flowering should be completed as soon as possible, and flowers and fruits should be sparsely scattered reasonably to prevent excessive fruit retention.Three is the autumn did not apply the base fertilizer orchard, should be in the soil thawing as soon as possible to fill, mainly with organic fertilizer, pay attention to the formula of compound fertilizer, fruit tree special fertilizer and biological fertilizer application, deep ditch application.After flowering, foliar topdressing was emphasized, nitrogen fertilizer was properly controlled, and amino acid compound fertilizer and phosphate potassium fertilizer were applied to improve quality and efficiency.Fourthly, for airtight old orchards, technical measures such as thinning and shape modification should be taken in time to improve the ventilation and light conditions of orchards, so as to achieve quality and efficiency improvement.The orchards that plan to carry out variety renewal through grafting should be prepared in advance for the skeleton arrangement of grafting trees, selection of excellent varieties, scion and other materials, and timely grafting for excellence.In view of the fact that some orchards did not normally enter dormancy due to the abnormal temperature drop at the end of autumn and the beginning of winter last year and the climate warming this spring is fast, it is particularly important to do the disease and insect control work well in advance and reduce the overwintering base of orchard diseases and insects.One is to carry out a qingyuan “look back” as soon as possible in combination with winter scissors.First of all, the tree, the tree under the dead leaves, rotten fruit and cut branches to do a thorough cleaning, the garden of waste fruit bags, damaged agricultural film and orchard surrounding weeds all removed out of the orchard, centralized processing.Second, the whole garden spraying stone sulfur mixture, pay attention to the prevention of diseases and insect pests such as rotten disease.About two weeks before fruit trees sprout and blossom, the whole garden sprayed pomei 3 ~ 5° stone sulfur mixture in time.Spring bud period is the high incidence of fruit tree rot disease, but also the key period of prevention and control, to do early detection early scraping, scraping to clean thoroughly, and then timely daub pharmaceutical prevention and control.The branch that produces serious to putrefying disease, should cut off in time, because of putrefying disease causes tree body to be weakened seriously, even the fruit tree that is on the edge of death, can be eliminated directly, reduce germ to spread spread thereby.Last winter and this spring, the fruit producing areas in our province, especially the apple producing areas in the southeast of Gansu, have more precipitation and better soil moisture in the orchard, which is very beneficial to the normal germination, flowering and growth of fruit trees.All regions should learn from last year’s continuous high temperature drought seriously affected the orchard production of lessons, as soon as possible to do orchard water conservation work.One is to act as soon as possible, careful arrangement, strengthen measures, to seize the current favorable opportunity and timely to carry out the top ling coated, focus on promoting the orchard ridging black film cover (garden), covering grass between strains, the effect of row, covering grass, dominated by sand hole and water storage technology, such as maximum keep soil moisture, reduce the ground evaporation.Second, the orchard has been covered with film to check the black film damage, should be repaired in time.Orchard with irrigation condition, timely irrigation 1 ~ 2 times before germination and after fruit setting.Third, encourage and support fruit production cooperatives (enterprises) in orchards to configure integrated facilities of fertilizer and water, promote water-saving irrigation technology.To guide and support dry farming orchards to develop “soft water cellar” and other simple water and fertilizer integration technology model, and actively cope with the possible drought.Five, actively develop technical guidance and fruit farmers training to organize professional technical cadres package package garden, seize the current orchard management task is relatively light this slack season, increase the intensity of fruit farmers’ technical training, in-depth production line, hold training classes, earnestly do a good job of science and technology into the garden and technical guidance.It is necessary to take the form of thematic lectures, on-site observation and demonstration, consultation and q&A, broadcasting technical videos, and issuing materials to popularize advanced practical technology, and pay attention to the role of fruit farmers’ associations, cooperatives and experienced fruit experts, fruit farmers’ technical backbone, “Tian Xiucai” in training and technology promotion.At present, it is necessary to focus on modern orchard construction, scientific management of saplings and early fruit and high yield, fertilizer conservation and water saving and efficient cultivation in dry farming, harmless prevention and control of diseases and insects, improvement of quality and efficiency of old orchards, light and simplified shaping pruning and mechanized operation, prevention and mitigation of late frost and freezing injury, green circular orchard model and other technologies.Relevant standards, new and superior varieties and localized technologies will be promoted to every village and every field as soon as possible.Disclaimer: This article is reproduced for the purpose of conveying more information.If the source is wrong or violated your legitimate rights and interests, please contact the author with proof of ownership, we will promptly correct, delete, thank you.Email address: newmedia@xxcb.cn